Mark Cochrane

Photo of Mark Cochrane Professor
University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science
Appalachian Laboratory
301 Braddock Road
Frostburg, Maryland 21532
Phone: 301-689-7109

Visit Mark's Research Website

Research Disciplines: Research Interests:

Wildland Fire, Climate Change, Disturbance Ecology, Land Cover Change, Remote Sensing, Earth System Science

View Mark's CV

Biographical Sketch

Dr. Mark Cochrane conducts interdisciplinary work combining ecology, remote sensing, and other fields of study to provide an Earth systems perspective of the dynamic processes involved in global change. He is an expert on wildfire, documenting the characteristics, behavior and severe effects of fire in tropical and temperate forests that are inherent to current systems of human land-use and management. His research focuses on understanding spatial patterns, interactions and synergisms between the multiple physical and biological factors that affect ecosystems. Recently published work has emphasized the climate change, human dimensions of land-cover change and the potential for sustainable development. In his ongoing research program, Dr. Cochrane continues to investigate the drivers and effects of disturbance regime changes resulting from various forms of forest degradation, including fire, fragmentation and logging as well as the mitigating effects of forest management. He holds a Ph.D. in Ecology from Pennsylvania State University and a S.B. in Environmental Engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.


  • 1994-1998         Ph.D.  Ecology, The Pennsylvania State University
  • 1989-1993         S.B. Environmental Engineering Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Ongoing and Recent CESU Projects

None at present as I have only recently started work as a Professor with the University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, Appalachian Laboratory.

Other Research

Awarded >$15,100,000 in Federal Funds with >$8,000,000 as Principal Investigator

 Current Research Grants:

NASA (Cochrane PI), Carbon Monitoring Science Grant ($1,310,995) 2018-2021. Continuation and expansion to a national-scale of the “Filling a critical gap in Indonesia’s national carbon monitoring, reporting, and verification capabilities for supporting REDD+ activities: Incorporating, quantifying and locating fire emissions from within tropical peat-swamp forests” Project.

Previous Research Grants:

NASA (Cochrane PI), Carbon Monitoring Science Grant ($185,748) 2016-2017. Continuation and expansion to a national-scale of the “Filling a critical gap in Indonesia’s national carbon monitoring, reporting, and verification capabilities for supporting REDD+ activities: Incorporating, quantifying and locating fire emissions from within tropical peat-swamp forests” Project.

 NASA (M. Wimberly PI), SERVIR Applications Grant ($628,713) 2016-2019. Monitoring and projecting environmental change in fragmented tropical landscapes. NASA (I. Numata PI), Research Grant ($602,349) 2014-2017. Assessing vulnerability and responses of forest edges to drought in Amazonia.

NASA (Cochrane PI), Interdisciplinary Research in Earth Science Grant – Carbon Monitoring Science ($2,202,393) 2013-2017. Filling a critical gap in Indonesia’s national carbon monitoring, reporting, and verification capabilities for supporting REDD+ activities: Incorporating, quantifying and locating fire emissions from within tropical peat-swamp forests.

NASA (Cochrane PI), Interdisciplinary Research in Earth Science Grant ($1,950,144) 2011-2014. Shifting Fire Regimes of the US, Australia and Brazilian Amazonia: The Roles of Climate Change, Land Use and Mitigation Efforts.

NASA (Cochrane PI), Applications Grant ($150,027) 2012-2014. Wildfire risk and treatment effectiveness of protecting highly valued resources and assets with fuels management.

NASA (Cochrane PI), Quantifying Fuel Treatment Effectiveness Over Time and in Extreme Weather Conditions ($30,000/annually renewed 2014-2017). Fellowship proposal for Christopher Moran. (Declined)

NASA (Cochrane PI), Interdisciplinary Research in Earth Science Grant ($1,111,163) 2007-2012. Biodiversity Implications of Forest Disturbance and Related Landscape Dynamics in the Brazilian Amazon.

JFSP (Cochrane PI), Research Grant ($656,370) 2006-2012. Fuel Treatment Effectiveness in the United States.

NASA (Cochrane PI), Applied Remote Sensing for Conservation Monitoring ($30,000/annually renewed 2008-2012). Fellowship for Christopher Barber.

NASA (M. Hansen PI), Research Grant ($556,373) 2006-2008. Establishing a Global Monitoring System Using Multi-Resolution and Multi-Temporal Remotely Sensed Data Sets.

NASA New Investigator Program, (Cochrane PI) Research Grant ($327,287) 2002-2005. The Synergism of Fire, Forest Fragmentation and Selective Logging in the Brazilian Amazon.

USAID (flow through IMAZON), (Cochrane PI) Research Grant ($260,116) 2003-2007. Sustainable Communities and Landscapes: A proposed Program to Sustain Natural Ecosystems and Enhance Local Livelihoods.

NASA (D. Skole PI), Research Grant ($4,167,405) 2003-2008. A Global Tropical Forest Information Center – TRFIC-2.

NASA (D. Skole PI), Research Grant ($591,672) 2004-2007. What is the Global Rate and Extent of Tropical Deforestation?

NASA (J. Qi PI), Research Grant ($763,065) 2004-2007. Land Use and Land Cover Dynamics of China in Support of GOFC/GOLD and NEESPI Sciences.


JOURNAL PUBLICATIONS: (* = PI-funded projects, underlined = student, italics = post doc)

*Putra, E.I., M.A. Cochrane, Y. Vetrita, L. Graham and B.H. Saharjo. 2018. Determining critical groundwater level to prevent degraded peatland from severe peat fire. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science 149 012027 doi: 10.1088/1755-1315/149/1/012027

*Jayarathne, T., C.E. Stockwell, A.A. Gilbert, K. Daugherty, M.A. Cochrane, K.C. Ryan, E.I. Putra, B.H. Saharjo, A.D. Nurhayati, I. Albar, R.J. Yokelson and E.A. Stone. 2018. Chemical characterization of fine particulate matter emitted by peat fires in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia, during the 2015 El Nino. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 18, 2585-2600

*Benami, E., L.M. Curran, M. Cochrane, A. Venturieri, R. Franco, J. Kneipp and A. Swartos. 2018. Oil palm land conversion in Pará, Brazil from 2006-2014: Evaluating the 2010 Brazilian sustainable oil palm production program. Environmental Research Letters 13: 034037.

Sparks, A.M., C.A. Kolden, A. M.S. Smith, L. Boschetti, D.M. Johnson and M.A. Cochrane. 2018. Fire intensity impacts on post-fire response of temperate coniferous forest net primary productivity. Biogeosciences 15, 1173-1183

Numata, I., S.S. da Silva, M.A. Cochrane and M.V.N. d’Oliveira. 2017. Fire and edge effects in a fragmented tropical forest landscape in the southwestern Amazon. Forest Ecology and Management 401: 135-146.

*Prior, L.D., B.P. Murphy, G.J. Williamson, M.A. Cochrane, W.M. Jolly and D.M.J.S. Bowman. 2017. Does inherent flammability of grass and litter fuels contribute to continental patterns of landscape fire activity? Journal of Biogeography 44(6) 1225-1238. doi:10.1111/jbi.12889

Bowman, D.M.J.S., G.J. Williamson, C.A. Kolden, A.M.S. Smith, J.T. Abatzoglou and M.A. Cochrane. 2017. Human population vulnerability to globally extreme wildfires. Nature Ecology and Evolution 1: 0058 DOI: 10.1038/s41559-016-0058.

Numata, I., K. Khand, J. Kjaersgaard, M.A. Cochrane and S.S. da Silva. 2017. Evaluation of Landsat-Based METRIC Modeling to Provide High-Spatial Resolution Evapotranspiration Estimates for Amazonian Forests. Remote Sensing 9(1) 46; doi:10.3390/rs9010046.

Bueno da Costa, O., E.A.T. Matricardi, M.A. Pedlowski, M.A. Cochrane, L.C. Fernandes and H. Angelo. 2017. Land use displacements by soybean plantations in the Western Brazilian Amazon state of Rondônia. Acta Amazonica 47(1) 29-38.

L.S. Wijedasa, J. Jauhiainen, M. Könönen, M. Lampela, H. Vasander, M.C. LeBlanc, S. Evers, T.E.L. Smith, C.M. Yule, H. Varkkey, M. Lupascu, F. Parish, I. Singleton, G.R. Clements, S.A. Aziz, M.E. Harrison, S. Cheyne, G.Z. Anshari, E. Meijaard, J.E. Goldstein, S. Waldron, K. Hergoualc’h, R. Dommain, S. Frolking, C.D. Evans, M.R.C. Posa, P. H. Glaser, N. Suryadiputra, R. Lubis, T. Santika, R. Padfield, S. Kurnianto, P. Hadisiswoyo, T.W. Lim, S.E. Page, V. Gauci, P.J. van der Meer, H. Buckland, F. Garnier, M.K. Samuel, L.N.L.K. Choo, P. O’Reilly, M. Warren, S. Suksuwan, E. Sumarga, A. Jain, W.F. Laurance, J. Couwenberg, H. Joosten, R. Vernimmen, A. Hooijer, C. Malins, M.A. Cochrane, B. Perumal, F. Siegert, K.S.-H. Peh, L.-P. Comeau, L. Verchot, C.F. Harvey, A. Cobb, Z. Jaafar, H. Wösten, S. Manuri, M. Müller, W. Giesen, J. Phelps, D.L. Yong, M. Silvius, B.M.M. Wedeux, A. Hoyt, M. Osaki, H. Takashi, H. Takahashi, T.S. Kohyama, A. Haraguchi, N.P. Nugroho, D.A. Coomes, L.P. Quoi, A. Dohong, H. Gunawan, D.L.A. Gaveau, A. Langner, F.K.S. Lim, D.P. Edwards, X. Giam, G. van der Werf, R. Carmenta, C.C. Verwer, L. Gibson, L. Grandois, L.L.B. Graham, J. Regalino, S.A. Wich, J. Rieley, N. Kettridge, C. Brown, R. Pirard, S. Moore, B.R. Capilla, U. Ballhorn, H.C. Ho, A. Hoscilo, S. Lohberger, T.A. Evans, N. Yulianti, G. Blackham, Onrizal, S. Husson, D. Murdiyarso, S. Pangala, L.E.S. Cole, L. Tacconi, H. Segah, P. Tonoto, J.S.H. Lee, G. Schmilewski, S. Wulffraat, E.I. Putra, M.E. Cattau, R.S. Clymo, R. Morrison, A. Mujahid, J. Miettinen, S.C. Liew, S. Valpola, D. Wilson, L. D’Arcy, M. Gerding, S. Sundari, S.A. Thornton, B. Kalisz, S.J. Chapman, A.S.M. Su, I. Basuki, M. Itoh, C. Traeholt, S. Sloan, A.K. Sayok & R. Andersen. 2017. Denial of long-term issues with agriculture on tropical peatlands will have devastating consequences. Global Change Biology 23(3) 977-982. doi: 10.1111/gcb.13516.

*Freeborn, P.H. W.M. Jolly, and M.A. Cochrane. 2016. Impacts of changing fire weather conditions on reconstructed trends in U.S. wildland fire activity from 1979 to 2014. Journal of Geophysical Research – Biogeosciences 121, doi:10.1002/2016JG003617.

*Stockwell, C.E., T. Jayarathne, M.A. Cochrane, K.C. Ryan. E.I. Putra, B.H. Saharjo, A.D. Nurhayati, I. Albar, D.R. Blake, I.J. Simpson, E.A. Stone and R.J. Yokelson. 2016. Field measurements of trace gases and aerosols emitted by peat fires in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia during the El Niño. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 16(18): 11711-11732. doi:10.5194/acp-16-11711-2016

Boer, M.M., D.M.J.S. Bowman, B.P. Murphy, G.J. Cary, M.A. Cochrane, R.J. Fensham, M.A. Krawchuk, O.F. Price, V. Resco de Dios, R.J. Williams, and R.A. Bradstock. 2016. Changes in climate water balance drive transformational shifts in Australian fire regimes. Environmental Research Letters 11(6): 065002.

*Williamson, G.J. L.D. Prior, W.M. Jolly, M.A. Cochrane, B.P. Murphy and D.M.J.S. Bowman. 2016. Measurement of inter- and intra-annual variability of landscape fire activity at a continental scale: the Australian case. Environmental Research Letters 11(3): 035003 doi:10.1088/1748-9326/11/3/035003

Smith, A.M.S., C.A. Kolden, T.B. Paveglio, M.A. Cochrane, D.M.J.S. Bowman, M.A. Moritz, A.D. Kliskey, L. Alessa, A.T. Hudak, C.M. Hoffman, J.A. Lutz, L.P. Queen, S.J. Goetz, P.E. Higuera, L. Boschetti, M. Flannigan, K.M. Yedinak, A.C. Watts, E.K. Strand, J.W. van Wagtendonk, J.W. Anderson, B.J. Stocks and J.T. Abatzoglou. 2016. The science of firescapes: achieving fire resilient communities. BioScience 66(2): 130-146.

*Thompson, M.P., P. Freeborn, J.D. Rieck, D.E. Calkin, J.W. Gilbertson-Day, M.A. Cochrane and M.S. Hand. 2016. Quantifying the influence of previously burned areas on suppression effectiveness and avoided exposure: A case study of the Las Conchas fire. International Journal of Wildland Fire 25(2): 167-181.

*Silveira, J.M., J. Louzada, J. Barlow, R. Andrade, L. Mestre, R. Solar, S. Lacau and M.A. Cochrane. 2015. A multi-taxa assessment of biodiversity change after single and recurrent wildfires in a Brazilian Amazon forest. Biotropica 48(2) 170-180. doi: 10.1111/btp.12267

*Jolly, W.M., M.A. Cochrane, P.H. Freeborn, Z.A. Holden, T.J. Brown, G.J. Williamson, and D.M.J.S. Bowman. 2015. Climate-induced variations in global wildfire danger from 1979 to 2013. Nature Communications 6, Article number: 7537. doi:10.1038/ncomms8537 (Cited > 100 times)

*Murphy, B., M.A. Cochrane, and J. Russell-Smith. 2015. Prescribed burning protects endangered tropical heathlands of the Arnhem Plateau, northern Australia. Journal of Applied Ecology 52(4): 980-991. doi:10.1111/1365-2664.12455

*Freeborn, P.H., M.A. Cochrane and W.M. Jolly. 2015. Relationships between fire danger and the daily growth of active incidents burning in the northern Rocky Mountains, USA. International Journal of Wildland Fire 24: 900-910.

J.G. Goldammer, S.J. Pyne, T.W. Swetnam, C. Whitlock, B.J. Stocks, M.D. Flannigan, A.I. Sukhinin, E. Ponomarev, L. Hinzman, F.S. Chapin, M. Fukuda, S. Page, J. Rieley, A. Hoscilo, A. Spessa, U. Weber, M.A. Cochrane, J.M. Moreno, V.R. Vallejo, E. Chuvieco, R.J. Williams, R.A. Bradstock, G.J. Cary, L.D. Neal, J. Enright, A.M. Gill, J. Handmer, K.J. Hennessy, A.C. Liedloff, C. Lucas, M.A. Moritz, M.A. Krawchuk, J.E. Keeley, W.S.W. Trollope, C. de Ronde, M.O. Andreae, G. van der Werf, K. Thonicke, J.G. Dans, V. Lehsten, R. Fisher, M. Forrest, L. Gowman, M. Wotton, W.J. de Groot, A. González-Cabán, M. Statheropoulos, S. Karma, W.J. Bond, G.F. Midgley, C.O. Justice, I. Csiszar, L. Boschetti, S. Korontzi, W. Schroeder, L. Giglio, K.P. Vadrevu, and D. Roy. 2015. Vegetation Fires and Global Change. Challenges for Concerted International Action. A White Paper directed to the United Nations and International Organizations. In: Planet@Risk, 3(1): 45-57, Davos: Global Risk Forum GRF Davos.

*Andrade, R.B., J. Barlow, J. Louzada, F.Z. Vaz-de-Mello, J. Silveira and M.A. Cochrane. 2014.  Tropical forest fires and biodiversity: Dung beetle community and biomass responses in a northern Brazilian Amazon forest. Journal of Insect Conservation. DOI 10.1007/s10841-014-9719-4

*Barber, C.P., M.A. Cochrane, C.M. Souza Jr., and W.F. Laurance. 2014. Roads, deforestation, and the mitigating effect of protected areas in the Amazon. Biological Conservation 177: 203-209. (Cited > 100 times)

*Freeborn, P.H., M.A. Cochrane and M.J. Wooster. 2014. A Decade Long, Multi-scale Map Comparison of Fire Regime Parameters Derived from Three Publically Available Satellite-based Fire products: A Case Study in the Central African Republic. Remote Sensing 6(5): 4061-4089.

*Bowman, D.M.J.S., B.P. Murphy, G.J. Williamson and M.A. Cochrane. 2014. Pyrogeographic models, feedbacks and the future of global fire regimes. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 23, 821-824.

*Freeborn, P.H., M.J. Wooster, D.P. Roy and M.A. Cochrane. 2014. Quantification of MODIS fire radiative power (FRP) measurement uncertainty for use in satellite-based active fire characterization and biomass burning estimation. Geophysical Research Letters 41(6): 1988-1994.

*Kumar,S., D.P. Roy, M.A. Cochrane, C. Souza Jr., C.P. Barber, and L. Boschetti. 2014. A quantitative study of the Proximity of Satellite Detected Active Fires to Roads and Rivers in the Brazilian Tropical Moist Forest Biome. International Journal of Wildland Fire 23(4) 532-543.

Roos, C.I., D.M.J.S. Bowman, J. Balch, P. Artaxo, W.J. Bond, M. Cochrane, C.M. D’Antonio, R. DeFries, F.H. Johnston, M.A. Krawchuk, C.A. Kull, M. Mack, M.A. Moritz, S. Pyne, A.C. Scott and T.W. Swetnam. 2014. Pyrogeography, historical ecology, and the human dimensions of fire regimes. Journal of Biogeography 41(4): 833-836. doi:10.1111/jbi.12285.

Stoker, J.M., M.A. Cochrane, and D.P. Roy. 2014. Integrating disparate lidar data at the National scale to assess the relationships between height above ground, landcover and ecoregions. Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing 80(1): 59-70.

*Andrade, R.B., J. Barlow, J. Louzada, L. Mestre, J. Silveira, F.Z. Vaz-de-Mello and M.A. Cochrane. 2014. Biotic congruence in humid tropical forests: a multi-taxa examination of spatial distribution and responses to forest disturbance. Ecological Indicators 36: 572-581.

*Souza, C., J.V. Siqueira, M. Sales, A.V. Fonseca, J. Ribeiro, I. Numata, M.A. Cochrane, C. Barber, D. Roberts and J. Barlow. 2013. 10-year Landsat classification of deforestation and forest degradation in the Brazilian Amazon. Remote Sensing 5(11) 5493-5513 doi:10.3390/rs5115493.

Cochrane, M.A. 2013. Introduction to ‘The Disappearance of the Tropical Forests of Africa’. Fire Ecology 9(2): 1-2.

*Bowman, D.M.J.S., B.P. Murphy, M.M. Boer, Bradstock, G.J. Cary, M.A. Cochrane, R.J. Fensham, M.A. Krawchuk, O.F. Price and R.J. Williams. 2013. Forest fire management, climate change and the risk of catastrophic carbon losses. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 2, 66-68.

Cheng, D., Rogan J., L. Schneider and M.A. Cochrane. 2013. Evaluating MODIS active fire products in subtropical Yucatán forest. Remote Sensing Letters 4(5): 455-464.

Toomey, M., Roberts, D.A., Caviglia-Harris, J., Cochrane, M.A., Dewes, C., Harris, D., Numata, I., Sales, M.H., Souza, C.M. Jr. and E. Sills. 2013. Long-term, high-spatial resolution carbon balance monitoring of the Amazonian frontier: Predisturbance and postdisturbance carbon emissions and uptake. Journal of Geophysical Research – Biogeosciences 118: 400-411. DOI: 10.1002/jgrg.20033

*Mestre, L., M.A. Cochrane and J. Barlow. 2013. Long-term changes in bird communities after wildfires in the Central Brazilian Amazon. Biotropica 45(4): 480-488.

*Silveira, J.M., J. Barlow, L.A.M. Mestre, R.B. Andrade, S. Lacau, R. Zanetti, and M.A. Cochrane. 2013. The responses of leaf litter ant communities to wildfires in the Brazilian Amazon: a multi-region assessment. Biodiversity and Conservation. 22: 513-529. DOI 10.1007/s10531-012-0426-8

*Murphy, B.P., R.A. Bradstock, M.M. Boer, J. Carter, G.J. Cary, M.A. Cochrane, R.J. Fensham, J. Russell-Smith, G.J. Williamson and D.M.J.S. Bowman. 2013. Fire regimes of Australia, a pyrogeographic model system. Journal of Biogeography 40: 1048-1058.

*Cochrane, M.A., C.J. Moran, M.C. Wimberly, A.D. Baer, M.A. Finney, K.L. Beckendorf, J. Eidenshink, and Z. Zhu. 2012. Estimation of wildfire size and risk changes due to fuels treatments. International Journal of Wildland Fire 21(4): 357-367.

*Silveira, J.M., J. Barlow, R.B. Andrade, L.A.M. Mestre, S. Lacau and M.A. Cochrane. 2012. Responses of leaf-litter ant communities to tropical forest wildfires vary with season. Journal of Tropical Ecology 28: 515-518. doi:10.1017/S02664674120051X.

*Numata, I. and M.A. Cochrane. 2012. Forest Fragmentation and its potential implications in the Brazilian Amazon between 2001 and 2010, Open Journal of Forestry. 2(4): 265-271. DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2012.24033

*Barber, C.P., M.A. Cochrane, C.M. Souza Jr., and A. Veríssimo. 2012. Dynamic Performance Assessment of Protected Areas. Biological Conservation 149: 6-14 DOI: 10.1016/

*Fearnside, P.M., W.F. Laurance, M.A. Cochrane, S. Bergen, P.D. Sampaio, C. Barber, S. D’Angelo & T. Fernandes. 2012. O futuro da Amazônia: Modelos para prever as conseqüências da infraestrutura futura nos planos plurianuais. Novos Cadernos NAEA 15(1): 25-52. ISSN: 1516-6481

*Barlow, J. L. Parry, T.A. Gardner, J. Ferreira, R. Carmenta, E. Berenguer, I.C.G. Veira, L. Aragao, C. Souza and M.A. Cochrane. 2012. The critical importance of considering fire in REDD+ programs. Biological Conservation. 154(SI): 1-8.

*Moran, C.J. and M.A. Cochrane. 2012. Do mountain pine beetle outbreaks change the probability of active crown fire in lodgepole pine forests?: Comment. Ecology 93(4): 939-941.

*Barlow, J., G.C. D’Andrea, J.M. Silveira, L.A.M. Mestre, R.B. Andrade, J. Louzada, F.Z. Vaz-de-Mello, S. Lacau and M.A. Cochrane. 2012. Wildfires in bamboo-dominated Amazonian forests: impacts on above-ground biomass and biodiversity. PLoS ONE 7(3) Article number e33373 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0033373.

Delamater, P.L., J.P. Messina, J. Qi and M.A. Cochrane. 2012. A hybrid visual estimation method for the collection of ground truth fractional coverage data in a humid tropical environment. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation 18: 504-514. doi:10.1016/j.jag.2011.10.005

*Andrade, R., J. Barlow and M.A. Cochrane. 2011. Quantifying responses of dung beetles to fire disturbance in tropical forests: the importance of passive and active trapping methods and seasonality. PLoS ONE 6: e26208. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0026208

*Numata, I., M.A. Cochrane, C.M. Souza and M.H. Sales. 2011. Carbon emissions from deforestation and forest fragmentation in the Brazilian Amazon. Environmental Research Letters 6(4): 044003 doi:10.1088/1748-9326/6/4/044003

*Mestre, L.A.M., J. Rechetelo, J. Barlow and M.A. Cochrane. 2011. Avifaunal inventory of a Southern Amazonian transitional site: the São Luiz” farm, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi 6(2): 147-161.

Bowman, D.M.J.S., Jennifer Balch, J., Artaxo, P., Bond, W.J., Cochrane, M.A., D’Antonio, C.M., DeFries, R. Johnston, F.H., Keeley, J.E., Krawchuk, M.E., Kull, C.A., Mack, M., Moritz, M.A.,  Pyne, S. Roos, C.I., Scott, A.C., Sodhi, N.S. and Swetnam, T.W. 2011. The human dimension of fire

regimes on Earth. Journal of Biogeography. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2699.2011.02595.x                   (Cited > 300 times)

*Liu, J. J.E. Vogelmann, Z. Zhu, C.H. Key, B.M. Sleeter, D.T. Price, J. M. Chen, M.A. Cochrane, J.C. Eidenshink, S.M. Howard, N.B. Bliss and H. Jiang. 2011. Estimating California Ecosystem Carbon Change Using Process Model and Land Cover Disturbance Data: 1951 – 2000. Ecological Modelling 222: 2333-2341.

*Numata, I., M.A. Cochrane and L.S. Galvão. 2011. Analyzing the impacts of frequency and severity of forest fire on the recovery of disturbed forest using Landsat time series and EO-1 Hyperion in the Southern Brazilian Amazon. Earth Interactions 15 (Paper 13) 1-17. DOI: 10.1175/2010EI372.1.

*Mestre, L.A.M., G. Thom, M.A. Cochrane and J. Barlow. 2010. The birds of Reserva Extractivista Chico Mendes, South Acre, Brazil. Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi 5(3): 311-333.

*Barlow, J., J.M. Silveira and M.A. Cochrane. 2010. Fire Scars on Amazonian Trees: Exploring the Cryptic Fire History of the Ilha de Maracá. Biotropica 42: 405-409.

*Numata, I., M.A. Cochrane, D.A. Roberts, J.V. Soares, C.M. Souza Jr. and M.H. Sales. 2010. Biomass Collapse and Carbon Emissions from Forest Fragmentation in the Brazilian Amazon. Journal of Geophysical Research, 115: G03027, doi:10.1029/2009JG001198.

*Cochrane, M.A. and C.P. Barber. 2009. Climate change, human land use and future fires in the Amazon. Global Change Biology 15, 601-612. (Cited > 100 times)

*Numata, I., M.A. Cochrane, D.A. Roberts, and J.V. Soares. 2009. Determining Dynamics of Spatial and Temporal Structures of Forest Edges in South Western Amazonia. Forest Ecology and Management 258: 2547-2555.

Bowman, D.M.J.S., J.K. Balch, P. Artaxo, W.J. Bond, J.M. Carlson, M.A. Cochrane, C.M. D’Antonio, R.S. DeFries, J.C. Doyle, S.P. Harrison, F.H. Johnston, J.E. Keeley, M.A. Krawchuck, C.A. Kull, J.B. Marston, M.A. Moritz, I.C. Prentice, C.I. Roos, A.C. Scott, T.W. Swetnam, G.R. van der Werf and S.J. Pyne. 2009. Fire in the Earth System. Science 324: 481-484. (Cited > 1,300 times)

*Wimberly, M.C., M.A. Cochrane, A. Baer and K. Pabst. 2009. Assessing Fuel Treatment Effectiveness Using Satellite Imagery and Spatial Statistics. Ecological Applications 19: 1377-1384.

*Mestre, L.A.M., J. Barlow, G. Thom & M.A. Cochrane. 2009. Burned Forests as a Novel Habitat for the Black-faced Cotinga (Conioptilon mcilhennyi) in the Western Brazilian Amazon. Ornitología Neotropical 20: 467-470.

*Cochrane, M.A. and W.F. Laurance. 2008. Synergisms among Fire, Land Use, and Climate Change in the Amazon. Ambio 37: 522-527. (Cited > 100 times)

*Kodandapani, N., M.A. Cochrane and R. Sukumar. 2008. A comparative analysis of spatial, temporal, and ecological characteristics of forest fires in seasonally dry tropical ecosystems in the Western Ghats, India. Forest Ecology and Management 256: 607-617.

Loveland, T.R., M.A. Cochrane and G.M. Henebry. 2008. Landsat Still Contributing to Environmental Research. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 23: 182-183.

Arima, E.Y., C.S. Simmons, T.T. Walker and M.A. Cochrane. 2007. Fire in the Brazilian Amazon: A Spatially Explicit Model for Policy Impact Analysis. Journal of Regional Science 47: 541-567.

*Messina, J.P. and M.A. Cochrane. 2007. The Forests are Bleeding: How Land Use Change is Creating a New Fire Regime in the Ecuadorian Amazon. Journal of Latin American Geography 6: 85-100.

Matricardi, E.A.T., D.L. Skole, M.A. Cochrane, M. Pedlowski and W. Chomentowski. 2007. Multi-temporal Assessment of Selective Logging in the Brazilian Amazon Using Landsat Data. International Journal of Remote Sensing 28: 63-82.

*Souza, C.M., Roberts, D.A. and M.A. Cochrane. 2005. Combining Spectral and Spatial Information to Map Canopy Damages from Selective Logging and Forest Fires. Remote Sensing of Environment 98: 329-343. (Cited > 200 times)

Matricardi, E.A.T., D.L. Skole, M.A. Cochrane, J. Qi and W. Chomentowski. 2005. Monitoring Selective Logging in Tropical Evergreen Forests Using Landsat: Multitemporal Regional Analyses in Mato Grosso, Brazil. Earth Interactions 9 (Paper 24) 1-24.

Wang, C., J. Qi and M. Cochrane. 2005. Assessment of Tropical Forest Degradation with Canopy Fractional Cover from Landsat ETM+ and IKONOS Imagery. Earth Interactions 9 (Paper 22).

*Kodandapani N., M.A. Cochrane, and R. Sukumar. 2004. Conservation Threat of Increasing Fire Frequencies in the Western Ghats, India. Conservation Biology 18(6): 1553-1561.

Simmons, C.S., R.T. Walker, C.H. Wood, E. Arima and M.A. Cochrane. 2004. Wildfires in Amazonia: A pilot study examining the role of farming systems, social capital, and fire contagion. Journal of Latin American Geography 3(1): 81-96.

*Cochrane, M.A. 2003. Fire Science for Rainforests. Nature 421: 913-919. (Cited > 700 times)

*Veríssimo A. and M.A. Cochrane. 2003. Management and Conservation of Tropical Forests: Brazil’s Bold Initiative in the Amazon. ITTO Tropical Forest Update 13(3): 4-6.

*Veríssimo, A. and M.A. Cochrane. 2003. A Risky Forest Policy in the Amazon? – Response. Science 299: 1843.

*Cochrane, M.A. and Laurance, W.F. 2002. Fire as a Large-Scale Edge Effect in Amazonian Forests. Journal of Tropical Ecology 18: 311-325. (Cited > 400 times)

*Veríssimo, A., M.A. Cochrane, and C. Souza Jr. 2002. National Forests in the Amazon. Science 297: 1478. (Cited > 100 times)

*Veríssimo, A., M.A. Cochrane, C. Souza Jr., and R. Salomão. 2002. Priority areas for establishing national forests in the Brazilian Amazon. Conservation Ecology 6(1): 4. [online] URL:

Laurance, W.F., Fearnside, P.M., Cochrane, M.A., D’Angelo S., Bergen S., Delamonica P. 2001. Development of the Brazilian Amazon – Response. Science 292: 1652-1654.

Cochrane M.A. 2001. In the Line of Fire: Understanding the Impacts of Tropical Forest Fires. Environment, 43(8): 28-38.

Laurance, W.F., Cochrane, M.A., Bergen, S., Fearnside, P.M., Delamônica, P., Barber, C., d’Angelo, S. And T. Fernandes. 2001. The Future of the Brazilian Amazon: Development Trends and Deforestation. Science 291: 438-439. (Cited > 900 times)

Cochrane, M.A.  2001. Synergistic Interactions between Habitat Fragmentation and Fire in Evergreen Tropical Forests.  Conservation Biology 15(6): 1515-1521. (Cited > 200 times)

Laurance, W.F. and Cochrane, M.A. 2001. Synergistic Effects in Fragmented Landscapes. Conservation Biology 15(6): 1488-1489. (Cited > 100 times)

Cochrane, M.A. 2000. Using Vegetation Reflectance Variability for Species Level Classification of Hyperspectral Data.  International Journal of Remote Sensing 21: 2075-2087. (Cited > 300 times)

Cochrane, M.A. 2000. Compreendendo o Significado das Queimadas na Floresta Amazônica (in Portuguese)  Ciencia Hoje 27(157): 26-31.

Cochrane, M.A., Alencar, A., Schulze, M.D, Souza Jr., C.M., Nepstad, D.C., Lefebvre, P., & Davidson, E. 1999. Positive feedbacks in the fire dynamic of closed canopy tropical forests. Science 284: 1832-1835. (Cited > 900 times)

Cochrane, M.A. & Schulze, M.D.  1999. Fire as a recurrent event in tropical forests of the eastern Amazon: effects on forest structure, biomass, and species composition.  Biotropica 31(1): 2-16. (Cited > 500 times)

Nepstad D.C., Veríssimo A., Alencar A., Nobre C., Lima E., Lefebvre P., Schlesinger P., Potter C., Moutinho P., Mendoza E., Cochrane M.A., and V. Brooks. 1999. Large-scale Impoverishment of Amazonian forests by logging and fire. Nature 398: 505-508. (Cited > 1,400 times)

Cochrane, M.A. & Souza Jr., C.M. 1998.  Linear mixture model classification of burned forests in the eastern Amazon.  International Journal of Remote Sensing 19: 3433-3440. (Cited > 100 times)

Cochrane, M.A. & Schulze, M.D.  1998. Forest fires in the Brazilian Amazon. Conservation Biology 12(5): 948-950. (Cited > 100 times)

Cochrane, M.A. 1998. The Current And Future Ecological Significance Of Fire In The Eastern Amazon:  Fire Effects And Feedbacks In Tropical Lowland Forest. Doctoral Dissertation. The Pennsylvania State University. 108pp.

Uhl, C., Kulakowski, D., Gerwing, J., Brown, M. & Cochrane, M.A.  1996. Sustainability: A touchstone concept for university operations, education and research. Conservation Biology 10(5): 1308-1311.



Applegate, G., L.L.B. Graham, A. Thomas, A. Yunan, Didie, Agus, Ato, B.H. Saharjo and M.A. Cochrane. (in press) Fire Scene Evaluation Field Manual. Penerbit IPB Press, Bogor, Indonesia, 106pp.

Cochrane, M.A. 2009. Tropical Fire Ecology: Climate Change, Land Use and Ecosystem Dynamics. Springer-Praxis, Heidelberg, Germany, 645pp.

Gutman, G., Janetos, A.C., Justice, C.O., Moran, E.F., Mustard, J.F., Rindfuss, R.R., Skole, D., Turner II, B.L., and Cochrane, M.A. (Eds.) 2004. Land Change Science: Observing, Monitoring, and Understanding Trajectories of Change on the Earth’s Surface. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 461pp.

Cochrane, M.A. (UNEP) 2002. Spreading Like Wildfire – Tropical Forest Fires In Latin America And The Caribbean: Prevention, Assessment And Early Warning. United Nations Environment Program, Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean. 96pp. (also published in Spanish 109pp).


Book Chapters (N = 16):

Cochrane, M.A. 2013. Current fire regimes, impacts and the likely changes – V: Tropical South America. Pp 101-114 in J.G. Goldammer ed. Vegetation Fires and Global Change: Challenges for Concerted International Action a White Paper directed to the United Nations and International Organizations, Kessel Publishing House, Remagen, Germany.

Cochrane, M.A. 2011. The Past, Present and Future Importance of Fire in Tropical Rainforests. Pp. 213-240 in M.B Bush, J.R. Flenley and W.D. Gosling eds. Tropical Rainforest Responses to Climate Change (2nd edition), Springer-Praxis, Heidelberg, Germany.

Cochrane, M.A. and K.C. Ryan. 2009. Fire and fire ecology: Concepts and principles. Pp. 25-62 in M.A. Cochrane, ed. Tropical Fire Ecology: Climate Change, Land Use and Ecosystem Dynamics. Springer-Praxis, Heidelberg, Germany.

Cochrane, M.A. 2009a. Fire in the tropics. Pp. 1-23 in M.A. Cochrane, ed. Tropical Fire Ecology: Climate Change, Land Use and Ecosystem Dynamics. Springer-Praxis, Heidelberg, Germany.

Cochrane, M.A. 2009b. Fire, Landuse, Landcover Dynamics and Climate Change in the Brazilian Amazon. Pp. 389-426 in M.A. Cochrane, ed. Tropical Fire Ecology: Climate Change, Land Use and Ecosystem Dynamics. Springer-Praxis, Heidelberg, Germany.

Kodandapani, N., M.A. Cochrane & R. Sukumar. 2009.  Forest fire regimes and their ecological effects in seasonally dry tropical ecosystems in the Western Ghats, India. Pp. 335-354 in M.A. Cochrane, ed. Tropical Fire Ecology: Climate Change, Land Use and Ecosystem Dynamics. Springer-Praxis, Heidelberg, Germany.

Cochrane, M.A. 2006. A Changing Landscape: A Geographical Perspective on Tropical Deforestation. In: Exploring Environmental Challenges: A Multidisciplinary Approach –Tropical Deforestation. (Spray and Moran eds.) Rowman and Littlefield Publishers.

Laurance, W.F., S. Bergen, M.A. Cochrane, P.M. Fearnside, P. Delamonica, S. D’Angelo, C. Barber, and T. Fernandes.  2005.  The Future of the Amazon.  Pages 583-609 in E. Bermingham, C. Dick, and C. Moritz, editors.  Tropical rainforests: past, present, and future.  University of Chicago Press.

Drake, B.G., Hughes, L., Johnson, E.A., Seibel, B.A., Cochrane, M.A., Fabry, V.J., Rasse, D. and L. Hannah. 2005. Synergistic Effects. Pages 296-316 in T.E. Lovejoy and L. Hannah, editors, Climate Change and Biodiversity. Yale University Press.

Cochrane, M.A., D.L. Skole, E.A.T. Matricardi, C. Barber and W. Chomentowski. 2004. Selective Logging, Forest Fragmentation and Fire Disturbance: Implications of Interaction and Synergy. Pp. 310-324 in Working Forests in the Neotropics: Conservation through Sustainable Management? (D.J. Zarin, et al. eds). Columbia University Press.

Skole D.L. and M.A. Cochrane. 2004. Observations of LCLUC in Regional Case Studies. Pp. 52-55 in Land Change Science: Observing, Monitoring, and Understanding Trajectories of Change on the Earth’s Surface (Gutman et al. eds). Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Skole D.L., M.A. Cochrane, E.A.T. Matricardi, W. Chomentowski, M. Pedlowski and D. Kimble. 2004. Pattern to Process in the Amazon Region: measuring forest conversion, regeneration and degradation. Pp. 77-95 in Land Change Science: Observing, Monitoring, and Understanding Trajectories of Change on the Earth’s Surface (Gutman et al. eds). Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Csiszar, I., C.O. Justice, A.D. Mcguire, M.A. Cochrane, D.P. Roy, F. Brown, S.G. Conard, P.G.H. Frost, L. Giglio, C. Elvidge, M.D. Flannigan, E. Kasischke, D.J. McCrae, T.S. Rupp, B.J. Stocks, and D.L. Verbyla. 2004. Land Use and Fires. Pp. 329-350 in Land Change Science: Observing, Monitoring, and Understanding Trajectories of Change on the Earth’s Surface (Gutman et al. eds). Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Johnson, E.A. and M.A. Cochrane. 2003. Disturbance Regime Interactions. Pp. 39-44 in Climate Change and Biodiversity: Synergistic Impacts. Edited by T. Lovejoy and L. Hannah. Advances in Applied Biodiversity Science, Number 4. Conservation International. Washington, DC.

Cochrane, M.A., Alencar, A., Schulze, M.D., Souza Jr., C.M., Lefebvre, P. and Nepstad, D.C. 2002. Investigating Positive Feedbacks in the Fire Dynamic of Closed Canopy Tropical Forests. In: Deforestation and Land Use in the Amazon (C.H. Wood and R. Porro eds.). University Press of Florida. Pg. 285-298.

Cochrane, M.A. 2000. Forest fire, deforestation and landcover change in the Brazilian Amazon. Pp. 170-176 in Volume 1: L.F. Neuenschwander, K. C. Ryan, G. E. Gollberg, and J. D. Greer, editors, Proceedings from, The Joint Fire Science Conference and Workshop, June 15-17, 1999, “Crossing the Millennium: Integrating Spatial Technologies and Ecological Principles for a New Age in Fire Management.” University of Idaho and the International Association of Wildland Fire. Moscow, Idaho.


White Papers:

Cochrane, M.A. 2013. Satellite-based active fire detection. Working Paper. Indonesia-Australia Forest Carbon Partnership ( 13p.

Cochrane, M.A. and C.J. Moran. 2011. Past, Present, and Future Climates for South Dakota: Observed climatic variation from 1895-2010 and projected climate change to 2099. Provided as support materials for the South Dakota Wildlife Action Plan, South Dakota Department of Game, Fish and Parks. 160p.

Souza, C.M., M.A. Cochrane, M.H. Sales, A.L. Monteiro and D. Mollicone. 2009. Case Studies on Measuring and Assessing Forest Degradation: Integrating Forest Transects and Remote Sensing Data to Quantify Carbon Loss due to Forest Degradation in the Brazilian Amazon. Forest Resources Assessment (FRA) Working Paper 161. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Forest Resources Division, Forest Resources Assessment Programme. 23 p.

Cochrane, M.A. 2006. Is the Amazon really at risk of dieback under projected climate change? Provided as material to support the Coalition for Rainforest Nations negotiations at the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Workshop on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation in Developing Countries (Rome, Italy 30 August – 1 September 2006).

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